Among the 1.6 billion workers receiving regular wages in the labour market, female workers are paid, on average, significantly less than male workers. Women in most countries earn on average only 60% to 75% of men’s wages. They are also over-represented as micro-entrepreneurs and small farmers, doing low-paid, low-productivity work in small firms or farms. This gendered gap in productivity and earnings is not because women are less capable, but because of women’s lower educational levels and their limited access to resources, as well as social perceptions about the role of women.
Unpaid care burden
Women across the world shoulder a disproportionate amount of unpaid care work. Unpaid care includes, but is not limited to, child care, elder care, taking care of ill family members, cooking and cleaning. Women devote 1 to 3 hours more a day to housework than men; 2 to 10 times the amount of time a day to care, and 1 to 4 hours less a day to market activities. Unpaid care burdens affect women’s access to economic opportunities. In the formal market, women juggle paid work with unpaid work and often face a ‘motherhood penalty’, so discrimination in the workplace because of their real or perceived roles as carers. Women may also face difficulties in getting a job in the formal economy, as they may not have the flexibility or childcare support to work contracted hours or travel to their workplace. Because of unpaid care burdens, women may seek work in the informal economy, a sector which can allow for more flexible working hours and conditions, but which is less regulated. Work in the informal economy is often insecure and precarious and has specific implications for the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women.
Gender inequality around the world > Economic > Unpaid care burden
The face of poverty is female
What is SRHR?
Equal opportunities for all
Gender inequality around the world
Early and forced marriage
Discrimination against girls
Comprehensive sexuality education
3. Sexual and Gender Based Violence
1. Unpaid care burdens
2. Formal and informal markets
2. Changing social norms
3. Peace building
IPPF’s recommendations: 6 steps for moving towards equality and sustainable development
1. Laws that support sexual and reproductive health and rights
2. Funding for sexual and reproductive health and rights
3. Measure the outcomes that really matter
4. Engage men and boys as partners in gender transformative change
5. Laws to eliminate sexual and gender-based violence
6. Strengthening political capacity of women at the grassroots level
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